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See: Global Marijuana March. ~600 different cities since 1999. First Saturday in May. City lists: 1999 2000 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2010. 11 ...Search them. Add city name to search.
With less than 5% of world population the USA has over 2.4 million of 9.8 million world prisoners! The majority of U.S. inmates are in due to the drug war.
Most Republican leaders oppose cheap universal healthcare. 45,000 uninsured Americans die each year due to lack of health insurance.
Tobacco Harm Reduction. Versus Tobacco Prohibition. Additives and smoke. Tobacco, cannabis, marijuana. Death charts. Tobacco, marijuana, cannabis. Eliminate the polonium and the hundreds of synthetic additives in tobacco in order to save hundreds of thousands of lives a year in the USA, and millions yearly worldwide. Use vaporizers to eliminate smoke. Charts for leading causes of death.
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*Table of Contents. After text loads, click topics below. Click TopLink, back button, or HomeKey to return here fast.

*Tobacco info, additives, health effects.
*More links. From contact page.

*Marijuana is safer than tobacco.

*Drug War charts, and more.



Tobacco info, additives, health effects. [TopLink]

There are additional annotated links in the section after this one. Most of the links in that section have not been checked out yet, but look very interesting. The links were sent via the website contact webform. Please feel free to do the same.

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*Radioactive Polonium in Tobacco. "between 1938 and 1960, the level of polonium 210 in American tobacco tripled commensurate with the increased use of chemical fertilizers and Persistant Organic Pollutant (POP) accumulation. ... The needless additional radiation delivered via fertilizer can be reduced through the use of alternative phosphate sources (19) or organic farming techniques (20). ... or merely switching to an organic brand of tobacco."
http://www.webspawner.com/users/radioactivethreat/index.html

*Chapter 15: Radioactive Tobacco. From the book: The Emperor Wears No Clothes. By Jack Herer. "U.S. government studies have shown that a pack-and-a-half of tobacco cigarettes per day over a year for just one year is the equivalent to your lungs of what some 300 chest x-rays (using the old, pre-1980s slow x-ray film and without using any lead protection) are to your skin."
http://www.electricemperor.com/eecdrom/HTML/EMP/15/ECH15_07.HTM

*US Government the World's Leading Drug Peddler. By Noam Chomsky.
"Just as the drug war was [re-]launched with great fanfare in September 1989, the US Trade Representative (USTR) panel held a hearing in Washington to consider a tobacco industry request that the US impose sanctions on Thailand in retaliation for its efforts to restrict US tobacco imports and advertising. Such US government actions had already rammed this lethal addictive narcotic down the throats of consumers in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, with human costs of the kind already indicated. The US Surgeon General, Everett Koop, testified at the USTR panel that 'when we are pleading with foreign governments to stop the flow of cocaine, it is the height of hypocrisy for the United States to export tobacco.' He added, 'years from now, our nation will look back on this application of free trade policy and find it scandalous.' Thai witnesses also protested, predicting that the consequence of US sanctions would be to reverse a decline in smoking achieved by their government's campaign against tobacco use."
http://deoxy.org/usdrugs.htm

It was only on April 13, 1994, that the names of 599 of the allowed tobacco additives were released to the news media from the control of our own government!

The following tobacco info may also help explain why cannabis has never been proven to have killed anybody in recorded history. Almost no one illegally growing cannabis feels the need to put additives into cannabis after it is grown.

And unlike tobacco, cannabis is not physically addicting, and very little cannabis smoke is needed to sustain a cannabis high. One to four cannabis smoke inhalations for each 4 to 5 hour high is plenty for most users. Versus hundreds of tobacco smoke inhalations each and every day for the average addicted tobacco smoker. And since cannabis is not physically addicting, most cannabis users only use cannabis occasionally.

*Medical Cannabis Links. Huge List! Revised. All health aspects. Uses, safety, studies groups, etc.. Many of these links are also lists of many more links.
http://corporatism.tripod.com/medlinks.htm and
http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/y/medlinks.htm

"The late Dr. Richard D. Passey of London's Chester Beatty Research Institute had spent twenty years investigating smoking and cancer. 'In Russia, China, Formosa, and other countries where cigarettes are made of air-dried tobacco [three months in a barn, allowing fermentation of sugars, and thus resulting in no sugar content] - close to the kind the American Indian used before the invention of sugar sauces [usually with many additives] - they are unable to find any correlation at all between smoking and lung cancer.' "
From book: Sugar Blues. 1975. It gives references for the above info: Medical World News, January 14, 1972, and March 16, 1973.

Of course, since that book came out, flue-cured (quick dried with heat, which leaves the tar-producing sugar content) American-type cigarettes, laden with added sugar and chemicals, are used in more and more places worldwide.

"Blended tobacco, water, high fructose corn syrup, glycerol, propylene glycol, sucrose, invert sugar, casing flavor, natural and artificial licorice flavor, menthol, artificial milk chocolate, natural chocolate flavor, artificial tobacco flavors, valerian root extract, molasses extract, vanilla extract, vanillin, isovaleric acid, cedarwood oil, phenylacetic acid, patchouli oil, hexanoic acid, vetiver oil, olibanum oil, 3-methylpentanoic acid, denatured ethanol"
Cigarette ingredients listed by L&M. The New York Times, December 28, 1997.

"But Wigand, with his allegations that B&W manipulated nicotine levels in cigarettes, knowingly used a carcinogenic additive to make pipe tobacco taste better and covered up research into "safer" cigarettes, has begun talking to lawyers, grand juries and the media at an inopportune moment for tobacco."
TIME Magazine, March 11, 1996.
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/archive/1996/dom/960311/tobacco.html

"The removal of tobacco from the Pharmacopoeia was the price that had to be paid to get the support of tobacco state legislators for the Food and Drug Act of 1906. The elimination of the word tobacco automatically removed the leaf from FDA supervision"
Smoking and Politics: Policymaking and the Federal Bureaucracy. Fritschler, A. Lee. 1969, p. 37.
*Tobacco Quotes.
http://www.tobacco.org/Misc/9806quotesoftheday.html

*9/98. US: Wire: Sick Smokers Cost US $73 Billion Per Year - Study.
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n794.a05.html/all

The PDFA (Partnership for a Drug-Free America), FDA, NIH, AMA, NCI, etc. do not warn against the hundreds of synthetic, carcinogenic, chemical additives allowed (but not listed) in tobacco.

Harm Reduction. Getting rid of the tobacco additives would probably at least halve the 450,000 yearly U.S. tobacco deaths. At the very least, all the ingredients should be listed on the packaging, the same as is required for almost any other item ingested into the human body.

In 1997 all Winston cigarettes were advertised as being 100% tobacco without any additives. They cannot legally make any health claims about it! This is insane. This is the power of the petrochemical pharmaceutical complex. American Spirit and other additive-free cigarette brands exist, too.

*Smoking and Thyroid Disease. Exploration of the Connections.
http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/smoking.htm

Most people don't realize that cancer was not common until relatively recently.

"There was hardly any cancer at all at the turn of this century, and there was no heart disease, except genetic. Today the cancer rate in the US is nearly one in two" (Healthy and Natural Journal, 1995, vol. 2, no. 2). "Today, cancer kills one of every five Americans" (book: Toxic Deception {TD}, 1996, page 7). The latest figures say that cancer kills one in four in the USA. So that means around 50% of those who get cancer in the USA will eventually die of cancer.

"Today, according to the federal government, at least 70,000 chemicals are in commerce" (TD, page xvii). "In sum, only a fraction of the 70,000 chemical compounds sold today have been examined for safety" (TD, page 12).

Health authorities and the press should encourage the use of thermostat-controlled pipes and vaporizers to evaporate the nicotine, without burning the tobacco. No smoke! There may have been a brand of cigarettes for awhile that used a red-hot coal at the tip of the cigarette to send hot air through the tobacco, rather than sending a flame through the cigarette. In all these methods the smoker inhales the nicotine that evaporates, but doesn't inhale smoke.

Prohibition attempts via cigarette taxes.

According to a 1994 report from Lindquist Avey Macdonald Baskerville Inc., "Huge tax increases in Canada ignited cigarette smuggling, resulting in almost one out of every three cigarettes smoked in 1993 being contraband. Organized criminals reaped handsome profits. The legal retailing and distribution systems were badly affected. Faced with increased lawlessness and heavy federal tax losses, Canadian federal and provincial governments announced massive tax cuts on cigarettes in early 1994. Smuggling declined significantly afterwards."

According to the same 1994 report the US federal tax per pack of 20 cigarettes was 24 cents effective January 1, 1993. State taxes as of July 1 1994 varied from 3 cents per pack in Kentucky up to 75 cents in Michigan. The 1994 report says that "A variety of indicators suggest that in 1992 up to 2.5 percent of total cigarette consumption in the United States may have comprised cigarettes that evaded federal taxes. ... Police in Hong Kong report that up to 40 percent of all cigarettes smoked in the British colony are contraband. According to Don Watson, the Commissioner of Customs, the impetus appears to be a 100 percent increase in the tobacco tax in 1991."

Question: Do you think that cigarettes should be illegal?
Ralph Nader:
No. You never prohibit an addiction because what you do is you drive it underground and a huge black market occurs. What you do with an addiction is expose the addicters to massive information, protect them from deceptive advertising, protect the young from being sold such [things] as tobacco products. Keep the research up to make whatever tobacco is consumed less lethal in terms of nicotine and other levels and increasingly make it socially stigmatized so that people often will stop smoking or won't smoke, not because it's bad for their health, but because it's no longer the thing to do. When I was in college, non-smokers were on the defensive. The smokers would blow smoke derisively in non-smokers faces. You'd never see that today.
--Source: David Frost interview Oct 21, 1994.

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More links. [TopLink]

The links below were sent via the website contact page:
http://corporatism.tripod.com/webform.htm

Emphasis added.

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*A list of 800 additives from which manufacturers select their secret recipes. There are doubtlessly hundreds more. See two lists at:
http://www.rjrt.com/TI/TIcig_ingred_summary.asp and
http://tobaccodocuments.org/profiles/additives

** April 2003 Washington Post article, the General Accounting Office (GAO) condemned lax government monitoring of tobacco pesticides. See:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32003-2003Apr24.html
And...Environmental News Service > >
http://ens-news.com/ens/apr2003/2003-04-25-09.asp#anchor2

*** Partial list of non-tobacco cigarette ingredients from which manufacturers select their secret "recipes":
http://tobaccodocuments.org/profiles/additives/
The Nation magazine, in 1991, reported about dangerous additives to "lite" cigs but can't get a copy on line...yet.

*** Bill Drake's invaluable site:
http://ktc.com/~bdrake

*** http://www.pmdocs.com
(Philip Morris had to post this as part of "settlement")

***The Massachusetts Tobacco Ingredients and Nicotine Yield Act is at:
http://www.state.ma.us/legis/laws/mgl/94-307B.htm
The 1st Circuit Court of Appeals Decision is at:
http://www.ca1.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/getopn.pl?OPINION=00-2425.01A

***The revised "Ninth Report" that contains all addendum materials is available on the Internet from the National Toxicology Program's web page at
http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov

***Radiation contaminating tobacco...
http://www.webspawner.com/users/radioactivethreat/

*** http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/
The 12 initial POPs include eight pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, and toxaphene), two industrial chemicals (PCBs and hexachlorobenzene, which is also a pesticide), and two unwanted by-products of combustion and industrial processes (dioxins and furans). [But Carbofurans are on lists of tobacco pesticides...so, I don't quite understand this.]

***** From Pesticicide Action Network, re/ 450 still registered tobacco pesticides 
http://www.panna.org/resources/documents/tobacco.dv.html
Tobacco, Farmers and Pesticides: The Other Story. May 1998 By Ellen Hickey and Yenyen Chan

*** RJR's (biased) review of Judge Osteen's rejection of EPA "secondhand smoke" stuff.
http://www.tobacco.org/resources/documents/osteensummary.html

*** More on EPA/2nd hand smoke; All garbage that avoids all along anything about what's IN "secondhand smoke". Cigarettes not defined or analyzed...smoke not defined or analyzed. This is SCIENCE??
http://stic.neu.edu/osteen.htm

**** Re "ETS" Environmental Tobacco Smoke"...except that no one TESTED unadulterated tobacco smoke for ANYTHING. Both sides doing a dance.
http://www.forces.org/articles/files/appeal.htm

*** And I just re-found this troubling note: 
"The best source for information on exemptions is the UNEP website,
http://irptc.unep.ch/pops/ , under "Stockholm Convention on POPs." The Convention text itself is informative, as is the revised list of requested exemptions. ...." It indicates that "unintentional" dioxins, like in products (like in typical cigarettes?) may not be covered in the POPs Treaty. Does WHO [World Health Organization] know this?

**** Fantastic scandal...that never heated up: Health insurers links to Big Cig.
http://www.pnhp.org/news/2000/march/insurers_are_major_i.php

*** Re/ "fire safe" cigarettes: 
http://www.ameriburn.org/advocacy/fireSafeCig.htm


*** No "link" to this at CDC but....here it is copied:

Dioxins in Cigarette Smoke

Copy of an abstract from US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Ga.

Authors: H. Muto, Y. Takazawa
Title: Dioxins in Cigarette Smoke
From: Archives of Environmental Health, Pg. 44 (3); 171-4
Date: May/June 1989

Abstract:

Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various cogeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ( -CDD) were detected. Particularly, the total concentration of hepta-CDD cogeners was the highest among these cogeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD cogeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD cogeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples, the 2, 3, 7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value---an index for effects on humans---for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81nng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg. kg body/weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs; 1-5 pg kg body/weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

*** Methyl Bromide use on tobacco:
http://www.tobacco.org/articles.php?pattern=Pesticides

***U.S. Government Accounting Office March 2003 report on lax government monitoring of tobacco pesticide residues. GAO fails to note dioxin from the chlorine chemicals, and fails to define what it means by "smoking", but...
http://www.gao.gov/atext/d03485.tx

*** The whole Muto/Takazawa piece on "Dioxins in Cigarette Smoke". Archives of Environmental Health, Pg. 44 (3) : 171-4 May/June 1989 (Compare to "Health Effects..." just below.)
http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Dioxins-Cigarette-Smoke.htm

*** HEALTH EFFECTS OF DIOXINS ...with info re/ U.S. dioxin maximum limits etc. (Compare to Muto/Takazawa discoveries re/ dioxin in cig smoke. Dioxin levels in cigarettes. Do the easy math. Result: just 20 typical cigarettes, with chlorine, hit unwitting victims with 716 times the US established minimum for Dioxin Exposures!):
http://www.gascape.org/index%20/Health%20effects%20of%20Dioxins.html

***Interesting. "Smokers" job performance better than non-smokers! Journal of Psychology. 2002 May;136(3):339-49 Related Articles, Links
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12206282&dopt=Abstract

***from the National Center on Food and Agricultural Policy, from 1997 use data. (Not all, just major tobacco pesticides); Number, I believe, is pounds used per anum. Will have to double check:
http://www.ncfap.org
1,3-Dichloropropene 13,279,285
ACEPHATE 871,899
ALDICARB 59,719
BENEFIN
BT
CARBARYL 2,057
CARBOFURAN
CHLOROPICRIN 6,761,644
CHLORPYRIFOS 406,822
CLOMAZONE 217,617
DIAZINON
DIMETHOMORPH 36,818
DIPHENAMID
DISULFOTON 13,495
ENDOSULFAN 172,766
ETHEPHON 102,130
ETHOPROP 182,321
FENAMIPHOS 379,841
FLUMETRALIN 352,742
FONOFOS 16
IMIDACLOPRID 67,896
ISOPROPALIN
MALATHION 15,437
MALEIC HYDRAZIDE 1,790,089
MANCOZEB 356,811
MEFENOXAM 139,199
METALAXYL 271,368
METHIDATHION
METHOMYL 29,773
METHYL BROMIDE 685,026
NAPROPAMIDE 92,622
PEBULATE 131,665
PENDIMETHALIN 473,718
SETHOXYDIM 9,579
SPINOSAD 2,815
SULFENTRAZONE 69,073
TRICHLORFON

TOBACCO Total 26,974,241

*** "Liggett Documents Show Pesticide Use For Tobacco," (...such as DDT, endrin, and malathion.) 
WALL STREET JOURNAL, April 9, 1997, p. B8. (sdb 4/9/97) [can't find computer link, yet.]

**** Title: How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke.
Dr. Gregory N Connolly, Director, Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program, Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health
http://tc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/9/3/283

Check out these websites for burn accelerants added to cigarettes:
http://www.burnsurgery.org/Modules/prevention/firesafecigarette/sec1.htm
http://www.ash.org.nz/doc/l-doc/0000573.html#e
http://www.harvardhillside.com/Stories/0,1413,108~5342~1420042,00.html

and these websites for toxic gases from the burning of synthetic fabrics...which happens when a Burn Accelerated cigarette may fall:
http://www.avora.com/fr_body_3.html
http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/health.htm
http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cbd/cbd243e.html

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Marijuana is safer than tobacco. [TopLink]

SAFER. Safer Alternative for Enjoyable Recreation.
SAFER - Home Page.

http://www.saferchoice.org
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safer_Alternative_for_Enjoyable_Recreation

See: Charts. Leading causes of death.  Diseases, accidents, homicide, legal drugs, illegal drugs, drugs of the Petrochemical Pharmaceutical Complex, Inc., etc..


[TopLink]

How dangerous is 
marijuana...
In comparison to 
other substances?


A chart below from the back cover of the
book "The Emperor Wears No Clothes: 
Hemp & the Marijuana Conspiracy," by 
Jack Herer.

Number of American deaths per year 
that result directly or primarily from
the following selected causes
nationwide, according to World Almanacs,
Life Insurance Actuarial (death) Rates,
and the last 20 years of U.S. Surgeon
Generals' reports.

Number_of_United_States_Deaths_per_Year.____
____________________________________________
TOBACCO__________________340,000_to_450,000_
____________________________________________
ALCOHOL._Not_including______________150,000+
________50_percent_of_all___________________
________highway_deaths_and__________________
________65_percent_of_all_murders.__________
____________________________________________
ASPIRIN._Including______________180_to_1000+
________deliberate_overdose.________________
____________________________________________
CAFFEINE._From_stress,_______1000_to_10,000_
________ulcers_and__________________________
________triggering_irregular________________
________heartbeats,_etc.____________________
____________________________________________
LEGAL_DRUG_OVERDOSE._______14,000_to_27,000_
________Deliberate_or_______________________
________accidental._From_legal,_____________
________prescribed_or_patent________________
________medicines_and_or_mixing_____________
________with_alcohol,_e.g.__________________
________Valium_and_alcohol._________________
____________________________________________
ILLICIT_DRUG_OVERDOSE________3,800_to_5,200_
________Deliberate__________________________
________or_accidental._From_________________
________all_illegal_drugs.__________________
____________________________________________
MARIJUANA________________________________0__
____________________________________________
The_Courier_New_font_lines_up_the_columns.__
http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/y/charts3.htm mirror page.
http://corporatism.tripod.com/charts3.htm mirror page.
http://www.jackherer.com/comparison.html
and
http://www.electricemperor.com/enter/how.html and
http://www.electricemperor.com/eecdrom/HTML/EMP/AA/ECH22.HTM

The above chart is probably as accurate or inaccurate as anything the government has put out recently. No accurate statistics really exist, since it has been shown that "drug-related" deaths reported at emergency rooms and elsewhere are often only based on what people say they thought was in the pill, powder, drug, herb, substance, drink, etc. that the deceased person may or may not have taken into their body. It is often inaccurate information, and the drug is often misrepresented, adulterated, incorrectly synthesized, etc.. The person may have died of something unrelated to drug use, but if drugs are mentioned by somebody, then the death may be reported as "drug-related." Here are the official U.S. government (NCHS) statistics on deaths in the USA from "Illegal Drug Use":
"There were 19,102 Deaths From Drug-Induced Causes in 1999 (legal and illegal drugs)."

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/druguse.htm --National Center for Health Statistics. (NCHS)
Several newspapers have exposed misrepresentation and fraud by government agencies concerning "drug-related" statistics:
http://www.egroups.com/message/hemp-talk/8443 and
*DrugSense FOCUS Alert. Florida Prohibitionists Artificially Inflate Drug Death Figures:
http://www.cannabisnews.com/news/thread5820.shtml and
http://www.mapinc.org/alert/0166.html and
*5-2000. DRCnet. Florida Officials Seriously Overcount "Club Drug" Deaths:

http://www.drcnet.org/wol/138.html#floridacount and
*Medical Cannabis Links. Huge List. All health aspects. Uses, safety, studies, groups, etc.:
http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/y/medlinks.htm and
http://corporatism.tripod.com/medlinks.htm

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[TopLink]

USA. LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH
in 2000
(unless year marked otherwise).


According to the Centers for Disease Control,
National Center for Health Statistics, and the
Journal of American Medical Association (for 1994
adverse drug reactions death numbers; April 14,
1998 issue of JAMA; 279:1200-1205, 1998).

LEADING_CAUSES_OF_DEATH_in_the_USA_in_2000,_________
unless_year_marked_otherwise._______________________
____________________________________________________
Total_deaths_______________________________2,403,351
____________________________________________________
1.__Heart_Disease____________________________710,760
2.__Cancer___________________________________553,091
3.__Stroke___________________________________167,661
4.__Chronic_Lower_Respiratory_Disease________122,009
5.__Adverse_Drug_Reactions_1994______________106,000*
______from_legal_drugs_at_doses_____________________
______used_for_prevention,__________________________
______diagnosis,_or_therapy.________________________
6.__Accidents_________________________________97,900
7.__Diabetes__________________________________69,301
8.__Pneumonia,_influenza______________________65,313
9.__Alzheimer's Disease_______________________44,536
10._Nephritis,_nephrotic_syndrome,_nephrosis__35,525
11._Septicemia________________________________30,680
12._Suicide___________________________________29,350
....________________________________________________
____Homicide__________________________________16,765
____HIV/AIDS__________________________________14,478
____________________________________________________
Fixed_width_Courier_font_lines_up_columns.__________
http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/y/charts3.htm mirror page.
http://corporatism.tripod.com/charts3.htm mirror page.
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98/n273/a04.html
and
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm and
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm and
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/suicide.htm and
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/aids-hiv.htm and

http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98/n272/a03.html and
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98/n327/a07.html

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Drug War charts, and more. [TopLink]